Biology 759 / 859

Foundations & Principles of Ecology

Course objectives and general structure:

Biology 759/859 provides graduate students with a survey of the seminal ideas and perspectives in historical and contemporary ecology. The course is designed to provide a broad overview of the important theoretical and conceptual paradigms in ecology. These are the topics that any graduate student in Ecology should know. The course is designed to fill in the major gaps in your knowledge while preparing you for your comprehensive examinations and career as an ecologist. It is obviously impossible to cover every seminal paper in the field of Ecology, nor are the topics in this class meant to be exhaustive. I have attempted to provide a mix of the major papers in the field in addition to important contemporary ideas.

All course materials will be posted here.


Time of last update: 01/24/2018 08:01

Syllabus  List of Eminent Ecologists










Introduction To Class

Category 1 Papers

Gould & Lewontin 1979

Connell 1980

Hurlbert 1984

Hutchinson 1959


Category 1 Papers

Godwin (1923) - Cate

Grinnell (1917) - Mike

Levins (1969) - Ashley

Gleason (1924) - Sara

Axelrod & Hamilton (1981) - Amanda

Griggs (1940) - Isaiah



MLK Day (no class)


Snowmaggedon (no class)


Eminent Ecologists I (15 min presentations)

Jane Lubchenko - Cate

William Edwin Ricker - Mike

George Andrewartha - Sara

Alfred Edwards Emerson - Ashley

Gleason - Isaiah

Free paper 1: Leibold et al 2004 - Mike

Free paper 2: Lewontin (1970) - Sara

Free paper 3: Fernald (1924) - Ashley

Academic Family Tree


Eminent Ecologists II (15 min presentations)

Charles J Krebs - Amanda

Daniel Simberloff - Cate

Eric Pianka - Sara

Paul Ralph Ehrlich - Ashley

George C Williams - Amanda

Wright - Isaiah

Harold A. Mooney - Mike

Free paper 4: Mills et al. (1993) - Amanda

Free paper 5: Rosenzweig & Sandlin (1997) - Mike

Free paper 6: Coley et al. (1985) - Isaiah


Classic Concepts I (15 min presentations)

Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis - Cate

Fire Ecology - Sara

Density-dependent vs Density-indpendent Population Dynamics - Amanda

Succession / Climax Theory - Isaiah

Source-Sink Dynamics - Mike

Dispersal - Ashley

Free paper 7: Chamberlin (1897) - Sara

Free paper 8: Colwell & Lees (2000) - Mike

Free paper 9: Darwin & Wallace (1858) - Ashley


Category 1 Papers (cont'd)

Horn & MacArthur (1972) - Amanda

Gleason (1926) - Isaiah

MacArthur (1955) - Mike

Pulliam (1988) - Sara

Schoener (1974) - Ashley

Hutchinson (1961) - Cate


Category 2 and 3 Papers

Cole (1954) - Sara

MacArthur & Pianka (1966) - Ashley

Tansley (1935) - Cate

MacArthur (1960) - Amanda

Vitousek & Reiners (1975) - Isaiah

Schoener (1971) - Mike


Classic Concepts II (15 min presentations)

Metapopulations - Cate

Diversity - Sara

Island Biogeography - Amanda

Competition (including intraspecific, interspecific, apparent; lottery; storage effect) - Isaiah

Food Webs - Mike

Predator-Prey Dynamics (including Type I, II, and III functional responses; stable limit cycles; Lotka-Volterra) - Ashley

Free paper 10: Phillips et al. (2006) - Sara

Free paper 11: Ehrlich & Raven (1964) - Ashley

Free paper 12: Brooks & Dodson (1965) - Cate


Category 4 and 5 Papers

Bray & Curtis (1957) - Sara

Teal (1962) - Cate

Odum (1969) - Amanda

Watt (1947) - Isaiah

Davidson & Andrewartha (1948) - Mike

Holling (1959) - Ashley


Contemporary Concepts I (15 min presentations)

Ecosystem Engineers - Cate

Macroecology - Sara

Top Down vs Bottom Up - Amanda

Mutualisms / Facilitation / Commensalisms - Isaiah

Trophic Cascades - Mike

Neutral Theory - Ashley

Free paper 13: Carpenter et al. (1985) - Cate

Free paper 14: Connor & Simberloff (1979) - Amanda

Free paper 15: Tilman & Pacala (1993) - Isaiah



Category 6 and 7 papers

Population equilibrium, Stability, etc - Sara

Naess (1973) - Sara

Costanza et al. (1997) - Cate

Simberloff & Wilson (1969) - Amanda

Likens et al. (1970) - Isaiah

Connell (1961) - Mike

Huffaker (1958) - Ashley



Contemporary Concepts II (15 min presentations)

Alternative Stable States - Cate

Keystone Species - Amanda

Productivity - Diversity Relationships - Isaiah

Optimal Foraging Theory - Mike

Indirect Effects (including trait-mediated responses) - Ashley

Free paper 16: Bertness & Callaway (1994) - Cate

Free paper 17: Yodzis (1988) - Amanda

Free paper 18: Howe & Smallwood (1982) - Isaiah


Category 9 papers

Peacor & Warner (1997) - Cate

Lande (1993) - Amanda

Cittadino (1980) - Isaiah

Rohde (1997) - Mike

Alonso et al. (2006) - Ashley

Fauth & Resetarits (1991) - Sara

Category 8 papers

Johnson & Omland (2004) - Sara

Walther et al. (2002) - Cate

Pimentel et al. (2005) - Amanda

Post (2002) - Isaiah

Fahrig (2003) - Mike

Brown et al. (2004) - Ashley




12-min presentations: 6 x 50 pts = 300 pts

Peer review of presentations = 100 pts (handed in at end of presentations)

Peer review rubric

Paper discusssion lead = 100 pts

Attendance / participation = 100 pts

Total = 600 pts

Courchamp, F., and C. J. A. Bradshaw. 2017. 100 articles every ecologist should read. Nature Ecology & Evolution.

1. Foundational Papers

Axelrod, R. and W. D. Hamilton. 1981. The evolution of cooperation. Science 211:1390-1396. [Amanda will present]  

Bormann, F.H. and G.E. Likens. 1967. Nutrient cycling. Science 155:424-429.

Clements, F.E. 1936. Nature and structure of the climax. Journal of Ecology 24:252-284.

Connell, J. H. 1980. Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past. Oikos 35: 131-138. [discussed in first class]

Connell, J.H. 1983. On the prevelance and relative importance of interspecific competition: evidence from field experiments. American Naturalist 122:661-696.

Cowles, Henry C. 1899. The Ecological Relations of the Vegetation on the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan. Botanical Gazette 27(2):95-117; 27(3):167-202; 27(4):281-308; 27(5):361-391.

Darwin, C., and A. Wallace. 1858. On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology 3:45-62. [Ashley will present]

Fernald, M.L. 1924. Isolation and endemism in northeastern America and their relation to the age-and-area hypothesis. American Journal of Botany 11:558 - 572. [Ashley will present]

Fernald, M.L. 1926. The antiquity and dispersal of vascular plants. Quarterly Review of Biology 1:212- 245.

Forbes, S.A. 1925. The lake as a microcosm. Bulletin of Illinois Natural History Survey 15:537-550

Gause, G. F. 1934. Experimental analysis of Vito Volterra's mathematical theory of the struggle for existence. Science 79:16-17.

Gleason, H.A. 1924. Age and area from the viewpoint of phytogeography. American Journal of Botany 11:541-546.[Sara will present]

Gleason, H.A. 1926. The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 53:7-26. [Isaiah will present]

Godwin, H. 1923. Dispersal of pond flora. Journal of Ecology 11:160-164.;[Cate will present]

Gould, S. J. and R. C. Lewontin. 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. B 205:581-598. [discussed in first class]

Griggs, R.F. 1940. The ecology of rare plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 67:575–594.[Isaiah will present]

Grinnell, J. 1917. The niche-relationships of the California Thrasher. Auk 34:427-433.[Mike will present]

Holt, R. D. 1977. Predation, apparent competition, and the structure of prey communities. Theoretical Population Biology 12:197-229.

Horn, H.S. and R.H. MacArthur. 1972. Competition among fugitive species in a harlequin environment. Ecology 53:749-752. [Amanda will present]

Hubbell, S.P. 1979. Tree dispersion, abundance, and diversity in a tropical dry forest. Science 203:1299-1309.

Hutchinson, G. E. 1961. The paradox of the plankton. American Naturalist 95:137-145. [Cate will discuss]

Levins, R. 1969. Some demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for biological control. Bulletin of the Entomological society of America 15: 237-240.[Ashley will present]

Lewontin R.C. 1970. The units of selection. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1:1-18.[Sara will present]

Lindeman, R.L. 1942. The trophic dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23:399-418. (Here is an article discussing the importance of this paper).

MacArthur, R. 1955. Fluctuations of animal populations, and a measure of community stability. Ecology 36:533-536. [Mike will present]

Nicholson, A.J. and V. A. Bailey 1935. The Balance of Animal Populations, Part I. Proceeding of the Zoological Society, London, no. 3, pp. 551-98.  

Odum, H.T. 1956. Primary production in flowing waters. Limnology & Oceanography 1:102-117.

Olson, J.S. 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44:322-331

Ovington, J.D. 1962. Quantitative ecology and the woodland ecosystem concept. Advances in Ecological Research 1:103-192 

Pulliam, H. R. 1988. Sources, sinks, and population regulation. American Naturalist 132:652-661. [Sara will present]

Schoener, T. W. 1974. Resource partitioning in ecological communities. Science 185:27-39. [Ashley will present]

Schoener, T. W. 1983. Field experiments on interspecific competition. American Naturalist 122:240-285.

Terborgh, J. 1973. On the notion of favorableness in plant ecology. American Naturalist 107:481 - 501.

Tilman, D. 1980. Resources: a graphical-mechanistic approach to competition and predation. American Naturalist 116:362-393.

Vernadsky, W.I. 1945. The biosphere and the noösphere. American Scientist 33:1-12 

Whittaker, R.H. 1953. A consideration of climax theory: The climax as a population and pattern. Ecological Monographs 23:41-78.

Whittaker, R.H. 1965. Dominance and diversity in land plant communities. Science 147:250 –260.


2. Theoretical Advances

Cole, L.C. 1954. The Population Consequences of Life History Phenomena. The Quarterly Review of Biology 29:103-37. [Sara will present]

Hutchinson, G.E. 1957. Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on on Quantitative Biology 22:415-427.

MacArthur, R. H. and E. R. Pianka. 1966. On optimal use of a patchy environment. American Naturalist 100:603-609.[Ashley will present]

MacArthur, R. H. and E. O. Wilson. 1963. An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17:373-387.

May, R. M. 1972. Will a large complex system be stable? Nature 238:413-414.

May, R. M. 1974. Biological populations with non-overlapping generations: stable points, stable cycles, and chaos. Science 186: 645-647.

Preston, F.W. 1962. The canonical distribution of commonness and rarity: Part I. Ecology 43:185 - 215.

Preston, F.W. 1962. The canonical distribution of commonness and rarity: Part II. Ecology 43:410 - 432.

Skellam, J.G. 1951. Random dispersal in theoretical populations. Biometrika 38:196-218.

Volterra, V. 1926. Fluctuations in the abundance of a species considered mathematically. Nature 118:558-560.


3. Theses, Antitheses, and Syntheses

Ehrlich, P. R. & Raven, P. H. 1964. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution 18: 586-608. A commentary that gives more background by Janz (2011) [Ashley will present]

Hairston, N.G., F.E. Smith, and L.B. Slobodkin. 1960. Community structure, population control, and competition. American Naturalist 94:421-425.

Harper, J.L. 1967. A Darwinian approach to plant ecology. Journal of Ecology 55:247-270.

Hutchinson, G.E. 1959. Homage to Santa Rosalia; or, Why are there so many kinds of animals? American Naturalist 93:145 - 159. [discussed in first class] *See also Felsenstein, J. 1981. Skepticism towards Santa Rosalia, or why are there so few kinds of animals? Evolution 35:124-138.

Janzen, D.H. 1970. Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist 104:501-528.

MacArthur, R. 1960. On the relative abundance of species. American Naturalist 94:25-36. [Amanda will discuss]

MacArthur, R. and R. Levins. 1967. The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. American Naturalist 101:377-385.

Schoener, T.W. 1971. Theory of feeding strategies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 2:369- 404. [Mike will present]

Tansley, A.G. 1935. The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16:284 –307. [Cate will present]

Vitousek, P.M. and W.A. Reiners. 1975. Ecosystem succession and nutrient retention: A hypothesis. Bioscience 25:376-381. [Isaiah will present]

Whittaker, R. H. And P. P. Feeny. 1971. Allelochemics: Chemical interactions between species. Science 171(3973):757-770.


4. Methodological Advances

Birch, L.C. 1948. The intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. Journal of Animal Ecology 17:15-26.

Bray, J.R. and J.T. Curtis. 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27:325-349. [Sara will present]  

Holling, C.S. 1959. The components of predation as revealed by a study of small mammal predation of the European pine sawfly. Canadian Entomologist 91:293-320. [Ashley will present]

Leslie, P.H. 1945. On the use of matrices in certain populations mathematics. Biometrika 33:183 - 212.

Moran, P. A. P. 1949. The statistical analysis of the sunspot and lynx cycles. Journal of Animal Ecology 18:115-116.

Odum, E. P. 1969. The strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262-270. [Amanda will present]

Porter, W.P. and D.M. Gates 1969. Thermodynamic Equilibria of Animals with Environment. Ecological Monographs 39:227-244.

von Post, L. 1967. Forest tree pollen in South Swedish peat bog deposits. Pollen et Spores (translation by MB Davis and K Faegri) 9:378 - 401.


5. Case Studies

Brooks, J.L. and S.I. Dodson. 1965. Predation, body size, and composition of plankton. Science 150:28-35. [Cate will present]

Davidson, J. and H. G. Andrewartha. 1948. The influence of rainfall, evaporation and atmospheric temperature on fluctuations in the size of a natural population of Thrips imaginis (Thysanoptera). Journal of Animal Ecology 17:200-222. [Mike will present]

Davis, M.B. 1969. Climatic changes in southern Connecticut recorded by pollen deposition at Rogers Lake. Ecology 50:409 - 422.

Heinselman, M.L. 1973. Fire in the virgin forest of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quarternary Research 3:329-382.

Keever, C. 1950. Causes of succession on old fields of the Piedmont, North Carolina. Ecological Monographs 20:229-250.

MacArthur, R. H. 1958. Population ecology of some warblers of northeastern conifer forests. Ecology 39:599-619.

Teal, J.M. 1962. Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia. Ecology 43:614-624. [Cate will present]  

Watt, A.S. 1947. Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology 35:1-22. [Isaiah will present]


6. Experimental Manipulations in Lab and Field Systems

Connell, J.H. 1961. The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42:710-723. [Mike will present]

Huffaker, C.B. 1958. Experimental studies on predation: Dispersion factors and predator-prey oscillations. Hilgardia 27:343-383.

Kettlewell, H.B.D. 1955. Selection experiments on industrial melanism in the Lepidoptera. Heredity 9:323-342.

Likens, G.E., F.H. Bormann, and N.M. Johnson. 1970. Effects of forest cutting and herbicide treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook watershed-ecosystem. Ecological Monographs 40:23-47. [Isaiah will present]

Paine, R.T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100:65 –75.

Park, T. 1948. Experimental studies of interspecies competition I. Competition between populations of the flour beetles, Tribolium confusum Duvall and Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Ecological Monographs 18:267-307.

Simberloff, D.S. and E.O. Wilson. 1969. Experimental zoogeography of islands: The colonization of empty islands. Ecology 50:278-296. [Amanda will present]


7. Experimental Design & Other Esoteric Subjects

Chamberlin, T. C. 1897. Studies for students: the method of multiple working hypotheses. Journal of Geology 837-848. [Sara will present]

Costanza, R., R. d'Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S. Naeem, R. V. O'Neill, J. Paruelo, R. G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt. 1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital. Nature 387:253-260. [Cate will present]

Fagerstrom, T. 1987. On theory, data, and mathematics in ecology. Oikos 50: 258-261.  

Hurlbert, S. H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments. Ecological Monographs 54:187-211. [discussed in first class]

Levins, R. 1966. The strategy of model building in population biology. American Scientist 54: 421-431. 

Loehle, C. 1987. Hypothesis-testing in ecology: psychological aspects and the importance of theory maturation. Quarterly Review of Biology 62:397-409.

Naess, A. 1973. The shallow and the deep, long-range ecology movement. A summary. Inquiry 16:95-100.[Sara will present]

Platt, J. R. 1964. Strong Inference. Science 146:347-353.

Zuk, M. 1993. Feminism and the study of animal behavior. BioScience 43: 774-778.


8. Selected Papers Among Most Highly Cited Ecology Papers Published Since 2002

Brown, J.H. et al. 2004. Toward a metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology 85:1771-1789. [Ashley will present]

Elith et al. 2006. Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from occurrence data. Ecography 29:129-151.

Fahrig, L. 2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol. Syst. 34:487-515. [Mike will present]

Guisan, A. and Thuiller, W. 2005. Predicting species distribution: offering more than simple habitat models. Ecology Letters 8:993-1009.

Hooper, D. U., F. S. Chapin, J. J. Ewel, A. Hector, P. Inchausti, S. Lavorel, J. H. Lawton, D. M. Lodge, M. Loreau, S. Naeem, B. Schmid, H. Setala, A. J. Symstad, J. Vandermeer, and D. A. Wardle. 2005. Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: A consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs 75:3-35.

Johnson, J.B. and Omland, K.S. 2004. Model selection in ecology and evolution. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 19:101-108. [Sara will present]

Leibold, M.A. et al. 2004. The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale community ecology. Ecology Letters 7:601-613. [Mike will present]

MacKenzie, D.I. et al. 2002. Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are less than one. Ecology 83: 2248-2255.

Phillips. S.J. et al. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions. Ecological Modelling 190:231-259. [Sara will present]

Pimentel, D. et al. 2005. Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecological Economics 52:273-288. [Amanda will present]

Post, D.M. 2002. Using stable isotopes to estimate trophic position: Models, methods, and assumptions. Ecology 83:703-718. [Isaiah will present]

Walther, G.-R., E. Post, P. Convey, A. Menzel, C. Parmesan, T. J. C. Beebee, J.-M. Fromentin, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and F. Bairlein. 2002. Ecological responses to recent climate change. Nature 416:389-395. [Cate will present]


9. Other Important Papers (Some neo-Classics, Some Contemporary)

Alonso, D., R. S. Etienne, and A. J. McKane. 2006. The merits of neutral theory. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 21:451-457. [Ashley will present]

Anderson, R. M., and R. M. May. 1978. Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions: I. Regulatory processes. Journal of Animal Ecology 47:219-247.

Anderson, R. M., and R. M. May. 1979. Population biology of infectious diseases: Part I. Nature 280:361-367.

Anderson, R. M., and R. M. May. 1981. The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences 291:451-524.

Bender, E. A., T. J. Case, and M. E. Gilpin. 1984. Perturbation experiments in community ecology: theory and practice. Ecology 65:1-13.

Berenbaum, M. R. 2002. Postgenomic chemical ecology: From genetic code to ecological interactions. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28:873-896.

Bertness, M. D. and R. Callaway. 1994. Positive interactions in communities. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 9:191-193. [Cate will present]

Bertness, M. D. and A. M. Ellison. 1987. Determinants of pattern in a New England salt marsh plant community. Ecological Monographs 57:129-147.

Blackburn, T. M. and K. J. Gaston. 1998. Some methodological issues in macroecology. American Naturalist 151:68-83.

Brett, M. T. and C. R. Goldman. 1996. A meta-analysis of the freshwater trophic cascade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93:7723-7726.

Brown, J. H. 1984. On the relationship between abundance and distribution of species. American Naturalist 124:255-279.

Brown, J. H. and B. A. Maurer. 1989. Macroecology: The Division of Food and Space Among Species on Continents. Science 243:1145-1150.

Brown, W. L., and E. O. Wilson. 1956. Character displacement. Systematic Zoology 5:49-64.

Carpenter, S. R., J. F. Kitchell, and J. R. Hodgson. 1985. Cascading trophic interactions and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639. [Cate will present]

Carpenter, S. R., J. F. Kitchell, J. R. Hodgson, P. A. Cochran, J. J. Elser, M. M. Elser, D. M. Lodge, D. Kretchmer, X. He, and C. N. von Ende. 1987. Regulation of lake primary productivity by food web structure. Ecology 68:1863-1876.

Caughley, G. 1994. Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63:215-244.

Chapin, F. S., E. Schulze, and H. A. Mooney. 1990. The Ecology and Economics of Storage in Plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:423-447.

Charnov, E.L. 1976. Optimal foraging: Attack strategy of a mantid. American Naturalist 110:141-151.

Charnov, E. L. 1976. Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem. Theoretical Population Biology 9:129-136.

Chave, J. 2013. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: What have we learned in 20 years? Ecology Letters 16:4-16.

Chesson, P. 2000. Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:343-366.

Chesson, P., and J. J. Kuang. 2008. The interaction between predation and competition. Nature 456:235-238.

Christensen, N.L. 1977. Fire and soil-plant relations in a pine-wiregrass savanna on the coastal plain of  North Carolina. Oecologia 31:27-44.

Cittadino, E. 1980. Ecology and the Professionalization of Botany in America. Studies in the History of Biology 4:171-198. [Isaiah will present]

Coley, P. D., J. P. Bryant, and F. S. Chapin. 1985. Resource Availability and Plant Antiherbivore Defense. Science 230:895-899. [Isaiah will present]

Collins, S. L., S. M. Glenn, and D. J. Gibson. 1995. Experimental analysis of intermediate disturbance and initial floristic composition: decoupling cause and effect. Ecology 76:486-492.

Colwell, R. K. and D. C. Lees. 2000. The mid-domain effect: geometric constraints on the geography of species richness. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 15:70-76. [Mike will present]

Colwell, R. K., and T. F. Rangel. 2009. Hutchinson's duality: The once and future niche. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:19651-19658.

Connell, J.H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302-1310.

Connell, J. H. 1961. Effects of competition, predation by Thais lapillus, and other factors on natural populations of the barnacle Balanus balanoides. Ecological Monographs 31:61-104.

Connell, J.H. and R.O. Slatyer. 1977. Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. American Naturalist 111:1119-1144.

Connell, J.H., and W.P. Sousa. 1983. On the evidence needed to judge ecological stability or persistence. American Naturalist 121:789-824.

Connor, E.F. and D.S. Simberloff. 1979. The assembly of species communities: Chance or competition? Ecology 60:1132-1140. [Amanda will present]

Cook, R.E. 1977. Raymond Lindemann and the trophic-dynamic concept in ecology. Science 198:22-26.

Crawley, M. J. 1989. Insect herbivores and plant population dynamics. Annual Review of Entomology 34: 551-564.

Cremer, S., S. A. O. Armitage, and P. Schmid-Hempel. 2007. Social immunity. Current Biology 17:R693-R702.

D'Antonio, C.M. and P.M. Vitousek. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23:63-87.

Denslow, J.L. 1987. Tropical rainforest gaps and tree species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 18:431-451.

de Ruiter, P. C., A.-M. Neutel, and J. C. Moore. 1995. Energetics, patterns of interaction strengths, and stability in real ecosystems. Science 269:1257-1260.

Dodds, W. K. 1997. Interspecific interactions: constructing a general neutral model for interaction type. Oikos 78:377-383.

Dushoff, J., J. B. Plotkin, S. A. Levin, and D. J. D. Earn. 2004. Dynamical resonance can account for seasonality of influenza epidemics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101:16915-16916.

Fauth, J. E. and W. J. Resetarits, Jr. 1991. Interactions between the salamander Siren intermedia and the keystone predator Notophthalmus viridescens. Ecology 72:827-838. [Sara will present]

Folke, C. 2006. Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological systems analyses. Global Environmental Change 16:253-267.

Fretwell, S. D., and H. L. Lucas, Jr. 1969. On territorial behavior and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. Acta Biotheoretica 19:16-36.

Gaillard, J.-M., M. Festa-Bianchet, N. G. Yoccoz, A. Loison, and C. Toïgo. 2000. Temporal variation in fitness components and population dynamics of large herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:367-393.

Gaines, S. and J. Roughgarden. 1985. Larval settlement rate: a leading determinant of structure in an ecological community of the marine intertidal zone. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 82:3707-3711.

Garnier, E. 1991. Resource capture, biomass allocation and growth in herbaceous plants. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6:126-131.

Ginzburg, L. R., and C. X. J. Jensen. 2004. Rules of thumb for judging ecological theories. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19:121-126.

Goldwasser, L. and J. Roughgarden. 1997. Sampling effects and the estimation of food-web properties. Ecology 78:41-54.

Grant, P. R., and B. R. Grant. 1995. The founding of a new population of Darwin's finches. Evolution 49:229-240.

Grime, J.P. 1977. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. American Naturalist 111:1169-1194.

Grime, J. P. 1998. Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: Immediate, filter and founder effects. Journal of Ecology 86:902-910.

Grimm, V., E. Revilla, U. Berger, F. Jeltsch, W. M. Mooij, S. F. Railsback, H.-H. Thulke, J. Weiner, T. Wiegand, and D. L. DeAngelis. 2005. Pattern-oriented modeling of agent-based complex systems: lessons from ecology. Science 310:987-991.

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10. Classic Ecological Concepts

Competition (including intraspecific, interspecific, apparent; lottery; storage effect) [Isaiah]

Density-dependent vs Density-indpendent Population Dynamics[Amanda]

Dispersal [Ashley]

Diversity (including indices, alpha vs beta vs gamma)[Sara]

Ecological Succession / Climax Theory [Isaiah]

Fire Ecology [Sara]

Food Webs (including ecological networks and food chains; connectance, modularity, nestedness) [Mike]

Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis[Cate]

Island Biogeography [Amanda]


Niche Partitioning (including realized, fundamental, and potential niches; Hutchinsonian ratios; niche complementarity; character displacement; competitive exlusion)

Predator-Prey Dynamics (including Type I, II, and III functional responses; stable limit cycles; Lotka-Volterra) [Ashley]

Source-Sink Dynamics [Mike]


11. Contemporary Ecological Concepts

Alternative Stable States (including hysteresis)[Cate]

Ecosystem Engineers[Cate]

Ecoystem Function / Ecosystem Services

Indirect Effects (including trait-mediated responses) [Ashley]

Interaction Strengths

Keystone Species [Amanda]


Maximum Sustainable Yield

Mutualisms / Facilitation / Commensalism [Isaiah]


Mid-domain Effect

Neutral Theory [Ashley]

Optimal Foraging Theory [Mike]

Population Equilibrium, Stability, Resistance, and Resilience[Sara]

Productivity - Diversity Relationships [Isaiah]

Resource Ratio Theory (including Zero Net Growth Isoclines; R*)

Top Down vs Bottom Up [Amanda]

Trophic Cascades [Mike]