Biology 759 / 859
Foundations & Principles of Ecology
objectives and general structure:
759/859 provides graduate students with a survey of the seminal ideas and
perspectives in historical and contemporary ecology. The course is designed to
provide a broad overview of the important theoretical and conceptual paradigms
in ecology. These are the topics that any graduate student in Ecology should
know. The course is designed to fill in the major gaps in your knowledge while
preparing you for your comprehensive examinations and career as an ecologist. It
is obviously impossible to cover every seminal paper in the field of Ecology,
nor are the topics in this class meant to be exhaustive. I have attempted to
provide a mix of the major papers in the field in addition to important
All course materials will be posted here.
STUDENTS ENROLLED IN THIS CLASS ARE EXPRESSLY FORBIDDEN FROM SHARING THIS LIST WITH OTHERS WITHOUT CONSENT OF THE INSTRUCTOR
Time of last update: 01/24/2018 08:01
Syllabus List of Eminent Ecologists
Introduction To Class
Category 1 Papers
Category 1 Papers
Godwin (1923) - Cate
Grinnell (1917) - Mike
Levins (1969) - Ashley
Gleason (1924) - Sara
Axelrod & Hamilton (1981) - Amanda
Griggs (1940) - Isaiah
MLK Day (no class)
Snowmaggedon (no class)
Eminent Ecologists I (15 min presentations)
Jane Lubchenko - Cate
William Edwin Ricker - Mike
George Andrewartha - Sara
Alfred Edwards Emerson - Ashley
Gleason - Isaiah
Free paper 1: Leibold et al 2004 - Mike
Free paper 2: Lewontin (1970) - Sara
Free paper 3: Fernald (1924) - Ashley
Academic Family Tree
Eminent Ecologists II (15 min presentations)
Charles J Krebs - Amanda
Daniel Simberloff - Cate
Eric Pianka - Sara
Paul Ralph Ehrlich - Ashley
George C Williams - Amanda
Wright - Isaiah
Harold A. Mooney - Mike
Free paper 4: Mills et al. (1993) - Amanda
Free paper 5: Rosenzweig & Sandlin (1997) - Mike
Free paper 6: Coley et al. (1985) - Isaiah
Classic Concepts I (15 min presentations)
Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis - Cate
Fire Ecology - Sara
Density-dependent vs Density-indpendent Population Dynamics - Amanda
Succession / Climax Theory - Isaiah
Source-Sink Dynamics - Mike
Dispersal - Ashley
Free paper 7: Chamberlin (1897) - Sara
Free paper 8: Colwell & Lees (2000) - Mike
Free paper 9: Darwin & Wallace (1858) - Ashley
Category 1 Papers (cont'd)
Horn & MacArthur (1972) - Amanda
Gleason (1926) - Isaiah
MacArthur (1955) - Mike
Pulliam (1988) - Sara
Schoener (1974) - Ashley
Hutchinson (1961) - Cate
Category 2 and 3 Papers
Cole (1954) - Sara
MacArthur & Pianka (1966) - Ashley
Tansley (1935) - Cate
MacArthur (1960) - Amanda
Vitousek & Reiners (1975) - Isaiah
Schoener (1971) - Mike
Classic Concepts II (15 min presentations)
Metapopulations - Cate
Diversity - Sara
Island Biogeography - Amanda
Competition (including intraspecific, interspecific, apparent; lottery; storage effect) - Isaiah
Food Webs - Mike
Predator-Prey Dynamics (including Type I, II, and III functional responses; stable limit cycles; Lotka-Volterra) - Ashley
Free paper 10: Phillips et al. (2006) - Sara
Free paper 11: Ehrlich & Raven (1964) - Ashley
Free paper 12: Brooks & Dodson (1965) - Cate
Category 4 and 5 Papers
Bray & Curtis (1957) - Sara
Teal (1962) - Cate
Odum (1969) - Amanda
Watt (1947) - Isaiah
Holling (1959) - Ashley
Contemporary Concepts I (15 min presentations)
Ecosystem Engineers - Cate
Macroecology - Sara
Top Down vs Bottom Up - Amanda
Mutualisms / Facilitation / Commensalisms - Isaiah
Trophic Cascades - Mike
Neutral Theory - Ashley
Free paper 13: Carpenter et al. (1985) - Cate
Free paper 14: Connor & Simberloff (1979) - Amanda
Free paper 15: Tilman & Pacala (1993) - Isaiah
Category 6 and 7 papers
Population equilibrium, Stability, etc - Sara
Naess (1973) - Sara
Costanza et al. (1997) - Cate
Simberloff & Wilson (1969) - Amanda
Likens et al. (1970) - Isaiah
Connell (1961) - Mike
Huffaker (1958) - Ashley
Contemporary Concepts II (15 min presentations)
Alternative Stable States - Cate
Keystone Species - Amanda
Productivity - Diversity Relationships - Isaiah
Optimal Foraging Theory - Mike
Indirect Effects (including trait-mediated responses) - Ashley
Free paper 16: Bertness & Callaway (1994) - Cate
Free paper 17: Yodzis (1988) - Amanda
Free paper 18: Howe & Smallwood (1982) - Isaiah
Category 9 papers
Peacor & Warner (1997) - Cate
Lande (1993) - Amanda
Cittadino (1980) - Isaiah
Rohde (1997) - Mike
Alonso et al. (2006) - Ashley
Fauth & Resetarits (1991) - Sara
Category 8 papers
Johnson & Omland (2004) - Sara
Walther et al. (2002) - Cate
Pimentel et al. (2005) - Amanda
Post (2002) - Isaiah
Fahrig (2003) - Mike
Brown et al. (2004) - Ashley
12-min presentations: 6 x 50 pts = 300 pts
Peer review of presentations = 100 pts (handed in at end of presentations)
Peer review rubric
Paper discusssion lead = 100 pts
Attendance / participation = 100 pts
Total = 600 pts
Courchamp, F., and C. J. A. Bradshaw. 2017. 100 articles every ecologist should read. Nature Ecology & Evolution.
Axelrod, R. and W. D.
Hamilton. 1981. The evolution of cooperation. Science 211:1390-1396. [Amanda will present]
Bormann, F.H. and G.E. Likens. 1967. Nutrient cycling. Science 155:424-429.
Clements, F.E. 1936.
Nature and structure of the climax. Journal of Ecology 24:252-284.
Connell, J. H. 1980.
Diversity and the coevolution of competitors, or the ghost of competition past.
Oikos 35: 131-138. [discussed in first class]
Connell, J.H. 1983. On the prevelance and relative importance of interspecific competition: evidence from field experiments. American Naturalist 122:661-696.
Cowles, Henry C. 1899. The Ecological Relations of the Vegetation on the Sand Dunes of Lake Michigan. Botanical Gazette 27(2):95-117; 27(3):167-202; 27(4):281-308; 27(5):361-391.
Darwin, C., and A. Wallace. 1858. On the Tendency of Species to form Varieties; and on the Perpetuation of Varieties and Species by Natural Means of Selection. Journal of the Proceedings of the Linnean Society of London. Zoology 3:45-62. [Ashley will present]
M.L. 1924. Isolation and endemism in northeastern America and their relation to
the age-and-area hypothesis. American Journal of Botany 11:558 - 572. [Ashley will present]
Fernald, M.L. 1926. The antiquity and dispersal of vascular plants. Quarterly Review of Biology 1:212- 245.
Forbes, S.A. 1925. The
lake as a microcosm. Bulletin of Illinois Natural History Survey 15:537-550
Gause, G. F. 1934. Experimental analysis of Vito Volterra's mathematical theory of the struggle for existence. Science 79:16-17.
H.A. 1924. Age and area from the viewpoint of phytogeography. American
Journal of Botany 11:541-546.[Sara will present] Gleason, H.A. 1926.
The individualistic concept of the plant association. Bulletin of the Torrey
Botanical Club 53:7-26. [Isaiah will present] Godwin,
H. 1923. Dispersal of pond flora. Journal of Ecology 11:160-164.;[Cate will present] Gould, S. J.
and R. C. Lewontin. 1979. The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian
paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme. Proceedings of the Royal
Society of London. B 205:581-598. [discussed in first class] Griggs,
R.F. 1940. The ecology of rare plants. Bulletin of the Torrey Botanical Club 67:575–594.[Isaiah will present] Grinnell, J.
1917. The niche-relationships of the California Thrasher. Auk 34:427-433.[Mike will present]
Holt, R. D. 1977. Predation, apparent competition, and the structure of prey communities. Theoretical Population Biology 12:197-229.
Horn, H.S. and R.H.
MacArthur. 1972. Competition among fugitive species in a harlequin environment.
Ecology 53:749-752. [Amanda will present]
Hubbell, S.P. 1979. Tree dispersion, abundance, and diversity in a tropical dry forest. Science 203:1299-1309.
E. 1961. The paradox of the plankton. American Naturalist 95:137-145. [Cate will discuss] Levins, R. 1969. Some
demographic and genetic consequences of environmental heterogeneity for
biological control. Bulletin of the Entomological society of America 15:
237-240.[Ashley will present] Lewontin R.C. 1970. The units of selection. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1:1-18.[Sara will present]
R.L. 1942. The trophic dynamic aspect of ecology. Ecology 23:399-418. (Here is an article discussing the importance of this paper).
R. 1955. Fluctuations of animal populations, and a measure of community
stability. Ecology 36:533-536. [Mike will present]
Nicholson, A.J. and V.
A. Bailey 1935. The Balance of Animal Populations, Part I. Proceeding of the
Zoological Society, London, no. 3, pp. 551-98.
Odum, H.T. 1956. Primary production in flowing waters. Limnology & Oceanography 1:102-117.
Olson, J.S. 1963. Energy storage and the balance of producers and decomposers in ecological systems. Ecology 44:322-331
Ovington, J.D. 1962. Quantitative ecology and the woodland ecosystem concept. Advances in Ecological Research 1:103-192
Pulliam, H. R. 1988.
Sources, sinks, and population regulation. American Naturalist 132:652-661. [Sara will present] Schoener, T. W. 1974.
Resource partitioning in ecological communities. Science 185:27-39. [Ashley will present]
Schoener, T. W. 1983. Field experiments on interspecific competition. American Naturalist 122:240-285.
Terborgh, J. 1973. On the notion of favorableness in plant ecology. American Naturalist 107:481 - 501.
Tilman, D. 1980. Resources: a graphical-mechanistic approach to competition and predation. American Naturalist 116:362-393.
Vernadsky, W.I. 1945. The biosphere and the noösphere. American Scientist 33:1-12
Whittaker, R.H. 1953. A consideration of climax theory: The climax as a population and pattern. Ecological Monographs 23:41-78.
Whittaker, R.H. 1965. Dominance and diversity in land plant communities. Science 147:250 –260.
Cole, L.C. 1954. The
Population Consequences of Life History Phenomena. The Quarterly Review of
[Sara will present]
Hutchinson, G.E. 1957. Concluding remarks. Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on on Quantitative Biology 22:415-427.
MacArthur, R. H. and
E. R. Pianka. 1966. On optimal use of a patchy environment. American
Naturalist 100:603-609.[Ashley will present]
MacArthur, R. H. and E. O. Wilson. 1963. An equilibrium theory of insular zoogeography. Evolution 17:373-387.
May, R. M. 1972. Will a large complex system be stable? Nature 238:413-414.
May, R. M. 1974.
Biological populations with non-overlapping generations: stable points, stable
cycles, and chaos. Science 186: 645-647.
Preston, F.W. 1962.
The canonical distribution of commonness and rarity: Part I. Ecology 43:185 -
Preston, F.W. 1962.
The canonical distribution of commonness and rarity: Part II. Ecology 43:410 -
Skellam, J.G. 1951.
Random dispersal in theoretical populations. Biometrika 38:196-218.
Volterra, V. 1926.
Fluctuations in the abundance of a species considered mathematically. Nature
Antitheses, and Syntheses
Ehrlich, P. R. &
Raven, P. H. 1964. Butterflies and plants: a study in coevolution. Evolution
18: 586-608. A commentary that gives more background by Janz (2011) [Ashley will present]
Hairston, N.G., F.E. Smith, and L.B. Slobodkin. 1960. Community structure, population control, and competition. American Naturalist 94:421-425.
Harper, J.L. 1967. A Darwinian approach to plant ecology. Journal of Ecology 55:247-270.
Hutchinson, G.E. 1959.
Homage to Santa Rosalia; or, Why are there so many kinds of animals? American
Naturalist 93:145 - 159. [discussed in first class] *See also Felsenstein, J. 1981. Skepticism towards Santa Rosalia, or why are there so few kinds of animals? Evolution 35:124-138.
Janzen, D.H. 1970. Herbivores and the number of tree species in tropical forests. American Naturalist 104:501-528.
R. 1960. On the relative abundance of species. American Naturalist 94:25-36. [Amanda will discuss]
MacArthur, R. and R. Levins. 1967. The limiting similarity, convergence, and divergence of coexisting species. American Naturalist 101:377-385.
Schoener, T.W. 1971.
Theory of feeding strategies. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 2:369-
404. [Mike will present] Tansley, A.G. 1935.
The use and abuse of vegetational concepts and terms. Ecology 16:284 –307. [Cate will present] Vitousek,
P.M. and W.A. Reiners. 1975. Ecosystem succession and nutrient retention: A
hypothesis. Bioscience 25:376-381. [Isaiah will present]
Whittaker, R. H. And P. P. Feeny. 1971. Allelochemics: Chemical interactions between species. Science 171(3973):757-770.
Birch, L.C. 1948. The
intrinsic rate of natural increase of an insect population. Journal of Animal
Bray, J.R. and J.T.
Curtis. 1957. An ordination of the upland forest communities of southern
Wisconsin. Ecological Monographs 27:325-349. [Sara will present]
Holling, C.S. 1959.
The components of predation as revealed by a study of small mammal predation of
the European pine sawfly. Canadian Entomologist 91:293-320. [Ashley will present]
Leslie, P.H. 1945. On the use of matrices in certain populations mathematics. Biometrika 33:183 - 212.
Moran, P. A. P. 1949. The statistical analysis of the sunspot and lynx cycles. Journal of Animal Ecology 18:115-116.
Odum, E. P. 1969. The
strategy of ecosystem development. Science 164:262-270. [Amanda will present]
Porter, W.P. and D.M. Gates 1969. Thermodynamic Equilibria of Animals with Environment.
Ecological Monographs 39:227-244.
von Post, L. 1967. Forest tree pollen in South Swedish peat bog deposits. Pollen et Spores (translation by MB Davis and K Faegri) 9:378 - 401.
5. Case Studies
Brooks, J.L. and S.I.
Dodson. 1965. Predation, body size, and composition of plankton. Science 150:28-35. [Cate will present] Davidson, J. and H. G.
Andrewartha. 1948. The influence of rainfall, evaporation and atmospheric
temperature on fluctuations in the size of a natural population of Thrips
imaginis (Thysanoptera). Journal of Animal Ecology 17:200-222. [Mike will present]
Davis, M.B. 1969. Climatic changes in southern Connecticut recorded by pollen deposition at Rogers Lake. Ecology 50:409 - 422.
Heinselman, M.L. 1973. Fire in the virgin forest of the Boundary Waters Canoe Area, Minnesota. Quarternary Research 3:329-382.
Keever, C. 1950. Causes of succession on old fields of the Piedmont, North Carolina. Ecological Monographs 20:229-250.
MacArthur, R. H. 1958. Population ecology of some warblers of northeastern conifer forests. Ecology 39:599-619.
Teal, J.M. 1962.
Energy flow in the salt marsh ecosystem of Georgia. Ecology 43:614-624. [Cate will present]
Watt, A.S. 1947.
Pattern and process in the plant community. Journal of Ecology 35:1-22. [Isaiah will present]
Manipulations in Lab and Field Systems
Connell, J.H. 1961.
The influence of interspecific competition and other factors on the distribution
of the barnacle Chthamalus stellatus. Ecology 42:710-723. [Mike will present]
Huffaker, C.B. 1958. Experimental studies on predation: Dispersion factors and predator-prey oscillations. Hilgardia 27:343-383.
1955. Selection experiments on industrial melanism in the Lepidoptera. Heredity
Likens, G.E., F.H.
Bormann, and N.M. Johnson. 1970. Effects of forest cutting and herbicide
treatment on nutrient budgets in the Hubbard Brook watershed-ecosystem.
Ecological Monographs 40:23-47. [Isaiah will present]
Paine, R.T. 1966. Food web complexity and species diversity. American Naturalist 100:65 –75.
Park, T. 1948.
Experimental studies of interspecies competition I. Competition between
populations of the flour beetles, Tribolium confusum Duvall and Tribolium
castaneum Herbst. Ecological Monographs 18:267-307.
Simberloff, D.S. and
E.O. Wilson. 1969. Experimental zoogeography of islands: The colonization of
empty islands. Ecology 50:278-296. [Amanda will present]
Design & Other Esoteric Subjects
T. C. 1897. Studies for students: the method of multiple working hypotheses.
Journal of Geology 837-848. [Sara will present] Costanza,
R., R. d'Arge, R. de Groot, S. Farber, M. Grasso, B. Hannon, K. Limburg, S.
Naeem, R. V. O'Neill, J. Paruelo, R. G. Raskin, P. Sutton, and M. van den Belt.
1997. The value of the world's ecosystem services and natural capital.
Nature 387:253-260. [Cate will present]
Fagerstrom, T. 1987.
On theory, data, and mathematics in ecology. Oikos 50: 258-261.
H. 1984. Pseudoreplication and the design of ecological field experiments.
Ecological Monographs 54:187-211. [discussed in first class]
Levins, R. 1966. The strategy of model building in population biology. American Scientist 54: 421-431.
Loehle, C. 1987. Hypothesis-testing in ecology: psychological aspects and the importance of theory maturation. Quarterly Review of Biology 62:397-409.
A. 1973. The shallow and the deep, long-range ecology movement. A summary.
Inquiry 16:95-100.[Sara will present]
Platt, J. R. 1964.
Strong Inference. Science 146:347-353.
Zuk, M. 1993.
Feminism and the study of animal behavior. BioScience 43: 774-778.
8. Selected Papers Among Most Highly Cited Ecology Papers Published Since 2002
et al. 2004. Toward a metabolic theory of ecology. Ecology 85:1771-1789.
[Ashley will present]
Elith et al.
2006. Novel methods improve prediction of species’ distributions from
occurrence data. Ecography 29:129-151.
2003. Effects of habitat fragmentation on biodiversity. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Evol.
Syst. 34:487-515. [Mike will present]
and Thuiller, W. 2005. Predicting species distribution: offering more than
simple habitat models. Ecology Letters 8:993-1009.
Hooper, D. U., F. S. Chapin, J. J. Ewel, A. Hector, P. Inchausti, S. Lavorel, J. H. Lawton, D. M. Lodge, M. Loreau, S. Naeem, B. Schmid, H. Setala, A. J. Symstad, J. Vandermeer, and D. A. Wardle. 2005. Effects of biodiversity on ecosystem functioning: A consensus of current knowledge. Ecological Monographs 75:3-35.
J.B. and Omland, K.S. 2004. Model selection in ecology and evolution. Trends in
Ecology and Evolution 19:101-108.
[Sara will present]
M.A. et al. 2004. The metacommunity concept: a framework for multi-scale
community ecology. Ecology Letters 7:601-613. [Mike will present]
D.I. et al. 2002. Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities
are less than one. Ecology 83: 2248-2255.
S.J. et al. 2006. Maximum entropy modeling of species geographic distributions.
Ecological Modelling 190:231-259. [Sara will present]
et al. 2005. Update on the environmental and economic costs associated with
alien-invasive species in the United States. Ecological Economics 52:273-288. [Amanda will present]
2002. Using stable isotopes to estimate trophic position: Models, methods, and
assumptions. Ecology 83:703-718. [Isaiah will present]
G.-R., E. Post, P. Convey, A. Menzel, C. Parmesan, T. J. C. Beebee, J.-M.
Fromentin, O. Hoegh-Guldberg, and F. Bairlein. 2002. Ecological responses to
recent climate change. Nature 416:389-395. [Cate will present]
9. Other Important Papers (Some neo-Classics, Some Contemporary)
D., R. S. Etienne, and A. J. McKane. 2006. The merits of neutral theory. Trends
in Ecology & Evolution 21:451-457.
[Ashley will present]
Anderson, R. M., and R. M. May. 1978. Regulation and stability of host-parasite population interactions: I. Regulatory processes. Journal of Animal Ecology 47:219-247.
Anderson, R. M., and R. M. May. 1979. Population biology of infectious diseases: Part I. Nature 280:361-367.
Anderson, R. M., and R. M. May. 1981. The population dynamics of microparasites and their invertebrate hosts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. B, Biological Sciences 291:451-524.
E. A., T. J. Case, and M. E. Gilpin. 1984. Perturbation experiments in community
ecology: theory and practice. Ecology 65:1-13.
Berenbaum, M. R. 2002. Postgenomic chemical ecology: From genetic code to ecological interactions. Journal of Chemical Ecology 28:873-896.
M. D. and R. Callaway. 1994. Positive interactions in communities. Trends in
Ecology and Evolution 9:191-193. [Cate will present]
Bertness, M. D. and A. M. Ellison. 1987. Determinants of pattern in a New England salt marsh plant community. Ecological Monographs 57:129-147.
T. M. and K. J. Gaston. 1998. Some methodological issues in macroecology.
American Naturalist 151:68-83.
Brett, M. T. and C. R. Goldman. 1996. A meta-analysis of the freshwater trophic cascade. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93:7723-7726.
Brown, J. H. 1984. On the relationship between abundance and distribution of species. American Naturalist 124:255-279.
Brown, J. H. and B. A. Maurer. 1989. Macroecology: The Division of Food and Space Among Species on Continents. Science 243:1145-1150.
Brown, W. L., and E. O. Wilson. 1956. Character displacement. Systematic Zoology 5:49-64.
S. R., J. F. Kitchell, and J. R. Hodgson. 1985. Cascading trophic interactions
and lake productivity. BioScience 35:634-639. [Cate will present]
Carpenter, S. R., J. F. Kitchell, J. R. Hodgson, P. A. Cochran, J. J. Elser, M. M. Elser, D. M. Lodge, D. Kretchmer, X. He, and C. N. von Ende. 1987. Regulation of lake primary productivity by food web structure. Ecology 68:1863-1876.
Caughley, G. 1994. Directions in conservation biology. Journal of Animal Ecology 63:215-244.
F. S., E. Schulze, and H. A. Mooney. 1990. The Ecology and Economics of Storage
in Plants. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 21:423-447.
E.L. 1976. Optimal foraging: Attack strategy of a mantid. American
Charnov, E. L. 1976. Optimal foraging, the marginal value theorem. Theoretical Population Biology 9:129-136.
Chave, J. 2013. The problem of pattern and scale in ecology: What have we learned in 20 years? Ecology Letters 16:4-16.
Chesson, P. 2000. Mechanisms of maintenance of species diversity. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:343-366.
Chesson, P., and J. J. Kuang. 2008. The interaction between predation and competition. Nature 456:235-238.
Christensen, N.L. 1977. Fire and soil-plant relations in a pine-wiregrass savanna on the coastal plain of North Carolina. Oecologia 31:27-44.
E. 1980. Ecology and the Professionalization of Botany in America. Studies
in the History of Biology 4:171-198. [Isaiah will present]
P. D., J. P. Bryant, and F. S. Chapin. 1985. Resource Availability and Plant
Antiherbivore Defense. Science 230:895-899.
S. L., S. M. Glenn, and D. J. Gibson. 1995. Experimental analysis of intermediate disturbance and initial floristic composition: decoupling cause and effect. Ecology 76:486-492.
Colwell, R. K. and D. C. Lees. 2000. The mid-domain effect: geometric
constraints on the geography of species richness. Trends in Ecology &
Evolution 15:70-76. [Mike will present]
Colwell, R. K., and T. F. Rangel. 2009. Hutchinson's duality: The once and future niche. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 106:19651-19658.
J.H. 1978. Diversity in tropical rain forests and coral reefs. Science 199:1302-1310.
Connell, J. H. 1961. Effects of competition, predation by Thais lapillus, and other factors on natural populations of the barnacle Balanus balanoides. Ecological Monographs 31:61-104.
Connell, J.H. and R.O. Slatyer. 1977. Mechanisms of succession in natural communities and their role in community stability and organization. American Naturalist 111:1119-1144.
J.H., and W.P. Sousa. 1983. On the evidence needed to judge ecological
stability or persistence. American Naturalist 121:789-824.
and D.S. Simberloff. 1979. The assembly of species communities: Chance or
competition? Ecology 60:1132-1140. [Amanda will present]
R.E. 1977. Raymond Lindemann and the trophic-dynamic concept in ecology. Science 198:22-26.
M. J. 1989. Insect herbivores and plant population dynamics. Annual Review of
Entomology 34: 551-564.
Cremer, S., S. A. O. Armitage, and P. Schmid-Hempel. 2007. Social immunity. Current Biology 17:R693-R702.
D'Antonio, C.M. and P.M. Vitousek. 1992. Biological invasions by exotic grasses, the grass/fire cycle, and global change. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 23:63-87.
J.L. 1987. Tropical rainforest gaps and tree species diversity. Annual Review
of Ecology and Systematics 18:431-451.
Ruiter, P. C., A.-M. Neutel, and J. C. Moore. 1995. Energetics, patterns of
interaction strengths, and stability in real ecosystems. Science 269:1257-1260.
Dodds, W. K. 1997. Interspecific interactions: constructing a general neutral model for interaction type. Oikos 78:377-383.
Dushoff, J., J. B. Plotkin, S. A. Levin, and D. J. D. Earn. 2004. Dynamical resonance can account for seasonality of influenza epidemics. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America 101:16915-16916.
J. E. and W. J. Resetarits, Jr. 1991. Interactions between the salamander Siren
intermedia and the keystone predator Notophthalmus viridescens. Ecology
72:827-838. [Sara will present]
C. 2006. Resilience: The emergence of a perspective for social–ecological
systems analyses. Global Environmental Change 16:253-267.
Fretwell, S. D., and H. L. Lucas, Jr. 1969. On territorial behavior and other factors influencing habitat distribution in birds. Acta Biotheoretica 19:16-36.
Gaillard, J.-M., M. Festa-Bianchet, N. G. Yoccoz, A. Loison, and C. Toïgo. 2000. Temporal variation in fitness components and population dynamics of large herbivores. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 31:367-393.
S. and J. Roughgarden. 1985. Larval settlement rate: a leading determinant of
structure in an ecological community of the marine intertidal zone. Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences 82:3707-3711.
E. 1991. Resource capture, biomass allocation and growth in herbaceous plants.
Trends in Ecology & Evolution 6:126-131.
Ginzburg, L. R., and C. X. J. Jensen. 2004. Rules of thumb for judging ecological theories. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 19:121-126.
L. and J. Roughgarden. 1997. Sampling effects and the estimation of food-web
properties. Ecology 78:41-54.
Grant, P. R., and B. R. Grant. 1995. The founding of a new population of Darwin's finches. Evolution 49:229-240.
J.P. 1977. Evidence for the existence of three primary strategies in plants and
its relevance to ecological and evolutionary theory. American Naturalist 111:1169-1194.
Grime, J. P. 1998. Benefits of plant diversity to ecosystems: Immediate, filter and founder effects. Journal of Ecology 86:902-910.
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10. Classic Ecological Concepts
Competition (including intraspecific, interspecific, apparent; lottery; storage effect) [Isaiah] Density-dependent vs Density-indpendent Population Dynamics[Amanda] Dispersal [Ashley] Diversity (including indices, alpha vs beta vs gamma)[Sara] Ecological Succession / Climax Theory [Isaiah] Fire Ecology [Sara] Food Webs (including ecological networks and food chains; connectance, modularity, nestedness) [Mike] Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis[Cate] Island Biogeography [Amanda] Metapopulations[Cate]
Niche Partitioning (including realized, fundamental, and potential niches; Hutchinsonian ratios; niche complementarity; character displacement; competitive exlusion)
Predator-Prey Dynamics (including Type I, II, and III functional responses; stable limit cycles; Lotka-Volterra) [Ashley] Source-Sink Dynamics [Mike]
11. Contemporary Ecological Concepts
Alternative Stable States (including hysteresis)[Cate] Ecosystem Engineers[Cate]
Ecoystem Function / Ecosystem Services
Indirect Effects (including trait-mediated responses) [Ashley]
Keystone Species [Amanda] Macroecology[Sara]
Maximum Sustainable Yield
Mutualisms / Facilitation / Commensalism [Isaiah]
Neutral Theory [Ashley] Optimal Foraging Theory [Mike] Population Equilibrium, Stability, Resistance, and Resilience[Sara] Productivity - Diversity Relationships [Isaiah]
Resource Ratio Theory (including Zero Net Growth Isoclines; R*)
Top Down vs Bottom Up [Amanda] Trophic Cascades [Mike]